PHP 5 Operators
PHP Operators
Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.
PHP divides the operators in the following groups:

Arithmetic operators

Assignment operators

Comparison operators

Increment/Decrement operators

Logical operators

String operators

Array operators
PHP Arithmetic Operators
The PHP arithmetic operators are used with numeric values to perform common arithmetical operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
+ 
Addition 
$x + $y 
Sum of $x and $y 
 
Subtraction 
$x  $y 
Difference of $x and $y 
* 
Multiplication 
$x * $y 
Product of $x and $y 
/ 
Division 
$x / $y 
Quotient of $x and $y 
% 
Modulus 
$x % $y 
Remainder of $x divided by $y 
** 
Exponentiation 
$x ** $y 
Result of raising $x to the $y'th power (Introduced in PHP 5.6) 
PHP Assignment Operators
The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.
The basic assignment operator in PHP is "=". It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.
Assignment 
Same as... 
Description 
x = y 
x = y 
The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right 
x += y 
x = x + y 
Addition 
x = y 
x = x  y 
Subtraction 
x *= y 
x = x * y 
Multiplication 
x /= y 
x = x / y 
Division 
x %= y 
x = x % y 
Modulus 
PHP Comparison Operators
The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
== 
Equal 
$x == $y 
Returns true if $x is equal to $y 
=== 
Identical 
$x === $y 
Returns true if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type 
!= 
Not equal 
$x != $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
<> 
Not equal 
$x <> $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
!== 
Not identical 
$x !== $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type 
> 
Greater than 
$x > $y 
Returns true if $x is greater than $y 
< 
Less than 
$x < $y 
Returns true if $x is less than $y 
>= 
Greater than or equal to 
$x >= $y 
Returns true if $x is greater than or equal to $y 
<= 
Less than or equal to 
$x <= $y 
Returns true if $x is less than or equal to $y 
PHP Increment / Decrement Operators
The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable's value.
The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable's value.
Operator 
Name 
Description 
++$x 
Preincrement 
Increments $x by one, then returns $x 
$x++ 
Postincrement 
Returns $x, then increments $x by one 
$x 
Predecrement 
Decrements $x by one, then returns $x 
$x 
Postdecrement 
Returns $x, then decrements $x by one 
PHP Logical Operators
The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
and 
And 
$x and $y 
True if both $x and $y are true 
or 
Or 
$x or $y 
True if either $x or $y is true 
xor 
Xor 
$x xor $y 
True if either $x or $y is true, but not both 
&& 
And 
$x && $y 
True if both $x and $y are true 
 
Or 
$x  $y 
True if either $x or $y is true 
! 
Not 
!$x 
True if $x is not true 
PHP String Operators
PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
. 
Concatenation 
$txt1 . $txt2 
Concatenation of $txt1 and $txt2 
.= 
Concatenation assignment 
$txt1 .= $txt2 
Appends $txt2 to $txt1 
PHP Array Operators
The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
+ 
Union 
$x + $y 
Union of $x and $y 
== 
Equality 
$x == $y 
Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs 
=== 
Identity 
$x === $y 
Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types 
!= 
Inequality 
$x != $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
<> 
Inequality 
$x <> $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
!== 
Nonidentity 
$x !== $y 
Returns true if $x is not identical to $y 
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
+ 
Addition 
$x + $y 
Sum of $x and $y 
 
Subtraction 
$x  $y 
Difference of $x and $y 
* 
Multiplication 
$x * $y 
Product of $x and $y 
/ 
Division 
$x / $y 
Quotient of $x and $y 
% 
Modulus 
$x % $y 
Remainder of $x divided by $y 
** 
Exponentiation 
$x ** $y 
Result of raising $x to the $y'th power (Introduced in PHP 5.6) 
PHP Assignment Operators
The PHP assignment operators are used with numeric values to write a value to a variable.
The basic assignment operator in PHP is "=". It means that the left operand gets set to the value of the assignment expression on the right.
Assignment 
Same as... 
Description 
x = y 
x = y 
The left operand gets set to the value of the expression on the right 
x += y 
x = x + y 
Addition 
x = y 
x = x  y 
Subtraction 
x *= y 
x = x * y 
Multiplication 
x /= y 
x = x / y 
Division 
x %= y 
x = x % y 
Modulus 
PHP Comparison Operators
The PHP comparison operators are used to compare two values (number or string):
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
== 
Equal 
$x == $y 
Returns true if $x is equal to $y 
=== 
Identical 
$x === $y 
Returns true if $x is equal to $y, and they are of the same type 
!= 
Not equal 
$x != $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
<> 
Not equal 
$x <> $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
!== 
Not identical 
$x !== $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y, or they are not of the same type 
> 
Greater than 
$x > $y 
Returns true if $x is greater than $y 
< 
Less than 
$x < $y 
Returns true if $x is less than $y 
>= 
Greater than or equal to 
$x >= $y 
Returns true if $x is greater than or equal to $y 
<= 
Less than or equal to 
$x <= $y 
Returns true if $x is less than or equal to $y 
PHP Increment / Decrement Operators
The PHP increment operators are used to increment a variable's value.
The PHP decrement operators are used to decrement a variable's value.
Operator 
Name 
Description 
++$x 
Preincrement 
Increments $x by one, then returns $x 
$x++ 
Postincrement 
Returns $x, then increments $x by one 
$x 
Predecrement 
Decrements $x by one, then returns $x 
$x 
Postdecrement 
Returns $x, then decrements $x by one 
PHP Logical Operators
The PHP logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
and 
And 
$x and $y 
True if both $x and $y are true 
or 
Or 
$x or $y 
True if either $x or $y is true 
xor 
Xor 
$x xor $y 
True if either $x or $y is true, but not both 
&& 
And 
$x && $y 
True if both $x and $y are true 
 
Or 
$x  $y 
True if either $x or $y is true 
! 
Not 
!$x 
True if $x is not true 
PHP String Operators
PHP has two operators that are specially designed for strings.
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
. 
Concatenation 
$txt1 . $txt2 
Concatenation of $txt1 and $txt2 
.= 
Concatenation assignment 
$txt1 .= $txt2 
Appends $txt2 to $txt1 
PHP Array Operators
The PHP array operators are used to compare arrays.
Operator 
Name 
Example 
Result 
+ 
Union 
$x + $y 
Union of $x and $y 
== 
Equality 
$x == $y 
Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs 
=== 
Identity 
$x === $y 
Returns true if $x and $y have the same key/value pairs in the same order and of the same types 
!= 
Inequality 
$x != $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
<> 
Inequality 
$x <> $y 
Returns true if $x is not equal to $y 
!== 
Nonidentity 
$x !== $y 
Returns true if $x is not identical to $y 
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